Automatic Classification of Welding Defects Using Neural Network and Image Processing Techniques


  • Pages 17 - 25
  • Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi , Ashraf Salah Emam , Ossama Badie Abouelatta
Viewed PDF
61 46

Abstract

Technological development accompanied the need to get a high-quality welding. In this research, an automatic technique is introduced to detect, recognize and classify welding defects in radiographic (x-ray) images, using texture features. Image processing techniques, including converting color images to grayscale, filtering and resizing images were applied to help in the image array of weld images and welding defect detection. Therefore, a proposed program was built in-house to automatically classify and recognize the most common types of welding defects met in practice. The introduced technique has been tested on eleven welding defects which are: center line crack, cap undercut, elongated slag lines, lack of interpass fusion, lack of root penetration, lack of side wall fusion, misalignment, root crack, root pass aligned, root undercut, and transverse crack (n = 35 for each). The overall average discrimination rate is about 94.29%. The introduced technique can find promising application of digital image processing technique to the field of welding defect inspection compared with traditional methods.


Mitigation of Drought Stress in Squash Plants (Cucurbita Pepo l.) By Foliar-Applied Salicylic Acid


  • Pages 1 - 4
  • Saad M. Howladar
Viewed PDF
39 50

Abstract

Foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) could provide protection against drought stress in plants. Two experiments (summer and fall) were consecutively conducted in 2016 to study the effect of SA on growth, yield, photosynthetic efficiency, water-use efficiency (WUE), and the accumulation of secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents) in squash plants subjected to three levels of irrigation (FI = 100%, DI20 = 80% and DI40 = 60% of crop evapotranspiration. Plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, secondary metabolites, yield and WUE significantly affected by deficit irrigation treatments and the combined deficit irrigation (DI) + foliar-applied SA treatment. Foliar application of SA modified the adverse effects of DI and enhanced squash growth and yield parameters. The exogenously-applied 1 mM SA under DI20 or DI40 could be a potential application for squash production savings (20–40%) of irrigation water without any or with low negative effects on plant growth or productivity.


Rate of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii among Gram Negative Bacterial Isolates and its Rate of Infection among Hospitalized Patients, KSA


  • Pages 5 - 8
  • Muhammad A. Halwani
Viewed PDF
17 21

Abstract

Emergence and spread of Acinetobacter Baumannii which is resistant to most usable anti-microbial agents is a matter of great concern. Objective: To estimate the rate of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among common bacterial isolates and its rate of infection among hospitalized patients in twelve hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: All Gram negative bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients during the period from January to December 2012 were included in this study. Results: Acinetobacter Baumannii counted for 17% (754/4404) of the total Gram negative isolates identified of which 18% (244/1375) only were involved in HAI. The resistance rates of A. Baumannii was 25% (61/244) to Ceftazidime, 27% (65/244) to Ciprofloxacin, 27% (65/244) to Cefepime, 34% (82/244) to Amikacin, 52% (127/244) to Tazocin, 57% (139/244) to Gentamicin and 66% (161/244) to Imipenem. Only 8% (20/244) of the isolates were tested for colistin and no resistance was detected. Discussion & Conclusion: Although the isolation rate of A. Baumannii was not very high compared to the other Gram negative bacteria, its involvement in hospital infections and its resistant patterns that were detected in this study are worrying. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reinforce precise infection control measures especially when it comes to environmental hygiene and the minimization of patient acquisition. Using molecular typing to identify the major circulating clone(s) of A. Baumannii in the city hospitals and their ways of transmission is a priority. Finally, local antibiotic guidelines should be prepared and applied.


The Use of Computer-Assisted Learning in Pharmacokinetic Practical Career: A Pioneer Trial in Sudan


  • Pages 9 - 15
  • Aimun AE. Ahmed , Habab AM Salih , Zuheir Osman
Viewed PDF
18 17

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the first use of a modified simulated pharmacokinetic program and its future impact in pharmacy education in Sudan.
Methods: A survey, using semi-structured questionnaire was conducted. A total of 410 undergraduate pharmacy students were enrolled, whilst five or six computer-simulated pharmacological experiments were performed during two different academic years (2013/2014-2014/2015). Students’ opinions on the objectives, effectiveness and utility of these simulated experiments were assessed.
Results: The majority (60 and 57 %) of the students indicated that they achieved their learning objectives and their understanding level was enhanced .Also most of them (70 and 76 %) preferred computer simulations over the wet experiments.
Conclusion: Computer-assisted learning is useful and effective educational tool to demonstrate the hardest pharmacological practical’s; Pharmacokinetic.


Performance Comparison of Three Adaptive Noise Cancellation Techniques


  • Pages 27 - 31
  • Kadry I. Montasser
Viewed PDF
15 10

Abstract

Three proposals for improving the performance of speech recognition, using the corresponding type of ANC techniques, are presented and evaluated. This improvement lies in increasing the speed of convergence with decreasing the steady state error of its adaptation algorithm, and giving a fast tracking in nonstationary environment. The three types of ANC schemes proposed in this paper have simple structures. The first two types of these ANC use an FIR ANC under the name of two stage ANC (TSANC), while the other is fast tracking two stage ANC (FTTSANC) . The third type uses an IIR ANC called IIR ANC with GIVE algorithm to solve the problem of receiving a weak, distorted and unpredictable signal with variance in the noise in the presence of speech signal period and acoustic interference noise signal from the background noise source.


Variation in Virulence, Growth, Conidial Production and Germination of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Response to Ecological Parameters


  • Pages 1
  • Helmy A.H. Aamer , Fahmy A. Kassem , Soad M. Ahmed , Elsayed A.M. Abdallah
Viewed PDF
0 1

Abstract

The effect of temperature and relative humidity on mycelial growth, spore production and germination of five isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, three indigenous isolate (Beauveria bassiana Bb-Am5, Bb-Bo10 and Bb-Mo12) and two exotic isolates ( B. bassiana Biopower isolate and Metarhizium anisopliae Biomagic isolate) in addition to their virulence against 3rd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis and 4th instar of Galleria mellonella larvae, were evaluated as an approach to select potential mycoinsecticides as biocontrol agent. The obtained results revealed that Entomopathogenic Fungi (EPF) virulence was varied among isolates on both larvae but G. mellonella was more sensitive. While, in the investigation of the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the various growth parameters of entomopathogenic fungi, the highest growth rate and conidial production of fungal isolates observed at 25°C with decline at 17 and 30°C with no growth for all tested isolates at 35°C. The spore production was more decline at 30°C compare with 17°C in all isolates except M. anisopliae Biomagic isolate. In other hand, the optimum temperature of spore germination was 30 ͦ C for all tested fungal isolates. The optimum relative humidity for colony growth, spore production and spore germination was 100%. Our result reveals the presence of variation between fungal isolates influenced by temperature and relative humidity on their various growth parameters which take in consideration when developed them as mycoinsecticide for use in control of insect pests.


Wind Data Analysis for Albaha City, Saudi Arabia


  • Pages 1
  • Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi , Ahmed Mohamed Abdel-Latif , Gamal A.W. Hazza , Ossama Badie Abouelatta
Viewed PDF
0 0

Abstract

This paper presents the analysis of recently collected data at three sites in Albaha city, Saudi Arabia namely, Raghadan, Allehyan and Almorassaa. The three sites represent different geographic and climatic conditions. Results show that the highest average wind speed has been recorded at Almorassaa site at a value of 3.879 m/s in direction between NW and WNW. The second highest average wind speed has been recorded at Raghadan site at a value of 3.750 m/s in direction between S and SSE. The lowest average wind speed has been recorded at Allehyan site at a value of 2.981 m/s in direction between S and SSE. The obtained wind data analysis used for estimating wind energy production. Wind energy generation is considered for 8 wind machines of different sizes. It was found that the capacity factor is low for wind turbines located at 10 m above ground level and it is a fair indication of Albaha being a site for wind farm development.


Cu(II) and Ni(II) Complexes Derived from Tridentate Ligands with N=N and CH=N Linkages: Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity


  • Pages 1
  • Sami A. Zabin
Viewed PDF
0 0

Abstract

The main purpose of this project was to synthesis new Schiff base ligands containing (N=N) and (CH=N) linkages along with other different substituents. Ligands were prepared by coupling azo-aldehydes with glycine as primary amine. These ligands were used to synthesize complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions. The prepared ligands and their corresponding Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, UV-visible, IR, NMR, magnetic susceptibility and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The analytical measurements reveal that the stoichiometries for the complexes obtained were in molar ratios of (1:2) (M: L). The proposed structures for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes were mononuclear with octahedral geometry which, were consistent with the chemical, physical, spectroscopic and TGA analysis data. The ligands and their copper (II) and Nickel (II) complexes were examined in vitro against different types of bacteria and Candida Albicans as fungal strains. The observations indicated moderate biological activity that increases on coordination with Cu(II) and Ni(II).


Laboratory Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Gram-negative Bacteria Isolated from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


  • Pages 1
  • Muhammad A. Halwani
Viewed PDF
0 0

Abstract

The aim of the study is to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in twelve hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The resistance rates were detected to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: A prospective and descriptive study using laboratory data for Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) were used. Results: A total of 20,026 Gram-negative bacteria were recovered from 21,571 patients of which E. coli was counted for 29% (5897/20,026), followed by P. aeruginosa 25% (5177/20,026), K. pneumonia 23% (4632/20,026), A. baumannii 21% (4250/20,026), and E. cloacae 0.3% (70/20,026). The resistance of E. coli isolates was 43% to ciprofloxacin, 41% to gentamicin, 40% to cefuroxime, 34% to cefepime, 31% to ceftazidime, 13% to tazocin and 12% to amikacin. The resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates was 33% to ciprofloxacin, 26% to gentamicin, 43% to cefuroxime, 30% to cefepime, 33% to ceftazidime, 18% to imipenem/meropenem, 16% to amikacin, and 14% to tazocin. The resistance in K. pneumonia isolates was 31% to ciprofloxacin, 35% to gentamicin, 51% to cefuroxime, 46% to cefepime, 50% to ceftazidime, 3.5% to imipenem/meropenem, 7.2% to amikacin, and 17% to tazocin. The resistance in A. baumannii isolates was 79% to ciprofloxacin, 69% to gentamicin, 76% to cefuroxime, 71% to cefepime, 68% to ceftazidime, 90% to imipenem/meropenem, 65% to amikacin, and 64% to tazocin. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, more thorough investigations are needed to determine the common clones and the spreading genes of resistance.


Assessment of Pathognomonic Markers in Tuberculosis Patients with Pulmonary Complications for Rapid Initiation of Tuberculosis Therapy


  • Pages 1
  • Mohammed H. Mukhtar
Viewed PDF
0 0

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) can cause serious complications to human body in which the immune response plays an essential part. This study designed to evaluate serum levels of cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and soluble apoptosis-stimulating fragment (sFas) in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases with confirmed M.TB infection. The study comprised of 50 patients (male & Female) with M.TB, 13 complicated and 37 uncomplicated cases. Serum IL-18, IFN-γ and sFas levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum Markers (IL-18, IFN-γ and sFas) levels were elevated significantly in complicated pulmonary TB group when compared with control and uncomplicated groups. Furthermore, sFas was found to correlate positively with IL-18 (r2=0.634, p<0.001) and IFN-γ (r2=0.623, p<0.001) in TB patient. Additionally, a positive and significant correlation was observed between serum levels of IL-18 and IFN-γ (r2=0.612, p<0.001) in the complicated group. Therefore and from these findings, the elevated IFN-γ levels after successful M.TB treatment, suggest that Fas expression might stimulate the infected macrophages. This showed an increased Fas ligand-induced (FasL) apoptosis. Modulation of FasL framework by M.TB may consider as an escape scheme to avoid the impact of apoptosis. Moreover, higher serum levels of IL-18, IFN-γ and sFas might be considered pathognomonic markers for pulmonary TB, especially in complicated cases.


تيييييست


  • Pages 1
  • اسراء تيست
Viewed PDF
0 0

Abstract

تيييييست



  • Pages 1
Viewed PDF
0 0